Providing sustainable energy for all is critical for 21st-century socio-economic development. A key challenge for rural delivery of electricity is the expense and lack of financing for households to connect to the service. These barriers to connection make it difficult for off-grid renewable energy providers to grow their businesses and reach profitability. CEFA International Cooperation launched its first rural electrification project in 1986 and it is still thriving with expanded generating capacity and new businesses established. With this grant, the grantee and other outside university researchers will address the key factors that have determined this project’s success and test interventions that can magnify those successes. The project will identify and make widely available a set of best practices and guidelines for the development and management of rural mini-grids to facilitate faster replication throughout Tanzania.